Stock Market Ranking And Scoring System

Know what top company officials are doing with their shares of stock. Are they buying more stock or are they selling the shares they own. This critical information can help you know what you should be doing.
 

 


Forex brokers are usually tied to large banks or lending institutions. This is because of the huge sums of money traded in the foreign exchange markets. Forex brokers are required to register with the Futures Commission Merchant (FCM), and are regulated by the Interactive Trader Commission (CFTC).

 

 

Interactive Trader





The money management strategy helps you avoid total loss by limiting your exposure to risk. If you lost that $1,000 in the Interactive Trader, you would still have $9,000 available for additional trading. Now you take 10 percent which is $900 and use that as the maximum amount to use for all your trades.

This years edition of trading tools software is flying high, leaving many daytraders overwhelmed at the quickness at which there portfolio is growing.The robot is making the most unbelieveable percentage of successful trades. It is currently trading at 85%. And thats with the real accounts, of actual purchasers. Its the hottest software that has ever hit the market.

Use technical analysis tools to identify current stock interactive brokers contact number trends. This information will article source help you know interactive brokers customer service phone number when to enter or exit stock trades using our green and red arrows.

 

 

Email or call Interactive Trader


Interactive Trader
360 S 670 W, Lindon, UT 84042
(844) 686-8381

Why Choose Pm Capital Over Other Precious Metal Companies?

Inspect for stocks using an array of $1+. To do that, it's a must to look at the trading stocks on the past work day and additionally conduct a subtraction of your large stock shares during the day belonging to the low stock throughout the day. Put the result towards the checking system on the supply. For those who continue with large-range stocks and options, you happen to be almost certainly going to have possibilities to carry out bigger trading and investing proceeds.



Stock Market Ranking and Scoring System Using this tool, you will be able to create watch lists for stocks you are most interested in. You will be confident knowing that you won't let a Interactive Trader single opportunity pass you by.
 

Interactive Trader

 




Real estate is another investment platform you might want to consider. It is safer than the Interactive Trader market, but requires in-depth knowledge and training. Investing in the real estate market can be done in many ways. You can fix and flip, buy a rental property, wholesale, and so on. There are a lot of factors interactive brokers fees to consider, but if you do it right, you will surely enjoy a huge profit.

As I am sure you know, there are many trading tools software s on the market. Some are good and some are well, not so good. Below you will find the top 6 things you should look for when researching a trading tools software. Remember that day trading in and of itself is very complex. Therefore the software that you will be using will be complex as well. Just make sure it is the software that works best for you.

Education is the key to Full Report investing success. Whatever venture you choose, be it investing in real estate, precious metals, or trading the share market, there is no substitute to having interactive brokers fees explained a solid investing education. You need to know not just the fundamentals, but most importantly the secret strategies used by successful investors. Fortunately, there are a lot of institutions that provide high quality investing education. Interactive Trader is one of them.

 

 

Get in touch with Interactive Trader


Interactive Trader
360 S 670 W, Lindon, UT 84042
(844) 686-8381

Surround On Your Own With Similar People



The Schack Institute of Real Estate at New York University offers both an undergraduate as well as graduate program in real estate. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science gear up students with the innovative and basic abilities necessary to end up being successful leaders in the real estate occupation. Grads gain a thorough understanding of real estate theory and also are submersed in the area through teaching fellowships, projects, and also mentoring programs.

Why Real Estate Investing

I have two boys that attend the University of Colorado. I acquired them each a condo utilizing proprietor inhabited FHA funding. Each lives in the device as well as has a flatmate paying rent to assist pay the regular monthly home loan. At the end of their university professions, they probably will have accumulated some considerable real estate equity to use in the following phase of their lives.

 

Real Estate Investing Vs Development

Examine the local statutes for tenancy limits in the area where you wish to buy. You might locate that 5 trainees could not reside in one residential property. In Boulder, zoning regulations enable 3 unrelated people in an LRE area and also 4 unassociated individuals in an MRE zone.


The Terry College of Business first presented its real estate program in the very early 1960s. The college's BBA, MBA, and Ph.D. real estate programs, in such high demand they could just accept a fraction of their candidates, now consists of hundreds of undergraduate as well as graduate majors. The extensive as well as challenging programs prepare pupils for the real estate sector by establishing abilities in logical as well as adaptive reasoning, problem addressing as well as flexibility. Its educational program offers academic training and hands-on experience with vibrant teaching fellowships as well as fundamental career training. Called for training courses for undergraduates consist of real estate principles, real estate asset management, real estate appraisal, real estate money, real estate law, real estate development, and also unique topics in real estate. The MBA in real estate focuses on extensive exam of real estate locations such as capital evaluation, boosting investor worth, site control, disposition as well as option, arrangements, and mortgage funding.

 

What Is Real Estate Investment Trust

The Department of Finance within the College of Business at UIUC uses thorough and also extensive level programs in real estate, including a BS in money with a focus in real estate and an MS in money with a concentration in real estate and also metropolitan land economics. Pupils get a broad understanding of the acquisition and also management of funds by firm, federal governments, and people with UIUC programs, consisting of the ability to identify the worth of real and also monetary by-products and assets. The programs integrate both theoretical and analytical thinking abilities. Real estate degrees include needed programs in the fundamentals of real estate, economic markets, metropolitan real estate appraisal, urban business economics, property-liability insurance coverage, policy and strategy, and financing arising companies, as well as supply an introduction to insurance policy and also lawful problems in real estate. Phenomenal Students could have the opportunity to join the Finance Academy, an enrichment program planned to create management and also occupation skills and also improve teaching fellowship possibilities for selected trainees throughout their junior and elderly years.


The best ways to Get Started In Real Estate Investing Without Cash

Despite the fact that the possible flatmates are typically buddies, have each roommate indicator a created rental arrangement. Seek advice from with a lawyer for specific format and also phrasing. The contract needs to cover all the things located in a property lease such as:

 

Once you have narrowed your financial investment choices, there may be numerous areas available to select from. Choose exactly how literally close you wish to be to a potential financial investment building then attract a "distance" surrounding several colleges where you are interested in spending. Do some research and also take into consideration the following questions:


real estate investing business plan

McCombs School of company at UT offers challenging as well as detailed level programs with a focus in real estate. BBA trainees can significant in finance with a field of expertise in real estate, while a real estate focus is available to MBA pupils; the department likewise offers an undergraduate certification in this concentration. Trainees study source allocation, monetary markets and organizations, the numerous instruments made use of to transfer loan, as well as the feature of finance in regard to business. McCombs is the only company school in the U.S. that uses students the opportunity to manage both public as well as private real estate mutual fund as part of their coursework in this significant. Educational program offers pupils with the logical devices necessary for aiming real estate experts, consisting of theoretical studies as well as training in the various methods of taking care of both finance as well as company. Trainees create abilities through partnership as well as communication and are instilled with an intrinsic understanding of moral obligation.

 

In Boulder, Colo., if a moms and dad acquired a condo in the 1980s and hung on to it for four years, they most likely would have sold it for concerning what they spent for it. If a moms and dad got a condo in the 1990s as well as offered it in 4 years, they most likely would have made enough revenue to pay for their youngster's education and learning at the University of Colorado.

 

The tough and also extensive scholastic programs used at the University of Florida give a thorough experience to graduates poised to become leaders of industry. UF faculty are award winning, valued research scholars and also industry professionals. The Warrington College of Business Administration at the University of Florida provides pupils the chance to take part in seminars as well as different speakers' collection. Warrington's real estate programs are concerned for their special connection to high level industry specialists, a distinct quality among similar scholastic programs in the field. Real estate degrees include a mentoring program, involvement in the notable speakers' series, day trip, firm brows through, and networking with members of UF's Friends as well as Alumni of Real Estate. Warrington has actually been consistently nationally ranked among leading universities for its real estate, grad, and also MBA programs.

 

The best ways to Start Real Estate Investing

If you determine to have your youngster on the home mortgage and also deed, assist your youngster develop debt prior to you use for a mortgage. Obtain a charge card in the trainee's name, preferably a year prior to your purchase. Also, if the student has a vehicle, it's an excellent concept to have a small funding on the cars and truck in the pupil's name which can also help their credit scores ranking.

 

Real Estate Investing For Beginners

The home of one of the top-ranked business institutions in the nation, the University of Texas is thought about among the most effective research study colleges in the nation, credited with progressing organisation understanding, assisting to manage as well as fix one of the most pressing difficulties to society and also pioneering power adequacy and sustainability. The McCombs School of Business has actually made its reputation through ingenious research as well as its high quality level programs, developed to train grads to become leaders of business globe. McCombs levels are shown by professors with know-how in various company industries and with a dedication to training excellence. With the Real Estate Finance and Investment Center at McCombs, trainees have the possibility to go after undergraduate, graduate and exec, non-degree programs in this focus.

 

With millions of new trainees yearly getting in colleges across the nation, college towns manifest a found diamond for real estate investors. While pictures of the 'Animal House' film could enter your mind, these rental residential properties provide a constant resource of need for real estate, aiding to drive higher rental fees and greater returns for homeowners.

 

When your child has gone on (hopefully finished), they could proceed to live in the residential or commercial property, you can maintain it as a financial investment rental or for your following youngster, or you could trade it for a piece of financial investment real estate somewhere else.

 

Real Estate Investing With No Money

Institution of higher learning towns provide appealing alternatives genuine estate financiers. If you are the moms and dad of a soon-to-be college trainee, if you are nearing retired life as well as taking into consideration a future relocation, or if you want to broaden your investment portfolio, take into consideration exploring your choices in these locations.

 

The Department of Finance, Insurance, as well as Real Estate within the Warrington College of Business Administration at the University of Florida offers an undergraduate small in real estate, a graduate small in real estate, an MBA with a focus in real estate, a master of science in real estate, a juris doctor/MS in real estate, as well as a Ph.D. in company administration with a concentration in financing and also real estate. The curriculum gives a multidisciplinary strategy with exploring subjects such as developing construction, design, and also city planning, leading to a detailed, in-depth academic experience. Programs consist of theoretical study as well as practical application. Training courses may include real estate market and also transaction analysis, professional communication, real estate regulation, professional writing, approaches and materials of building and construction, investment residential property evaluation, real estate evaluation, and also second mortgage markets and also securitization.




Called for courses for undergrads consist of real estate concepts, real estate asset monitoring, real estate assessment, real estate financing, real estate law, real estate advancement, as well as special topics in real estate. The Department of Finance within the College of Business at UIUC supplies strenuous as well as extensive degree programs in real estate, including a BS in finance with a focus in real estate and also an MS in money with a focus in real estate and urban land business economics. Real estate degrees consist of needed training courses in the basics of real estate, monetary markets, city real estate evaluation, metropolitan business economics, property-liability insurance, technique and policy, and also financing arising organisations, as well as supply an intro to insurance as well as legal problems in real estate. BBA students could major in financing with a specialization in real estate, while a real estate focus is readily available to MBA pupils; the department likewise uses an undergraduate certificate in this focus. The Department of Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate within the Warrington College of Business Administration at the University of Florida provides an undergraduate small in real estate, a graduate minor in real estate, an MBA with a concentration in real estate, a master of science in real estate, a juris doctor/MS in real estate, and also a Ph.D. in business administration with net worth of scott yancey a concentration in financing and also real estate.

Shiller Pe Ratio By Sector



Shiller Pe Ratio Data

 

 


The Shiller PE intends to smooth out the economic and also earnings cycles to provide
a much more educated sight of a firm's cost than the typical  
price. earnings ratio,   which makes use of just one year of profits. The conventional P/E.
ratio contrasts the share rate to either the previous year's incomes or.
projection profits, typically for the following 12 months.


 

 

 


< iframe src =" https://youtube.com/embed/KPyljg96ItM" allowfullscreen="" size
=" 856" elevation =" 480 "frameborder=" 0" > Shiller Pe Ratio By Sector.
In September 2013 a FT evaluation took a look at the clash of point of views in between. Robert Shiller as well as another renowed economist, Jeremy Siegel. According.
to Prof Shiller United States equities were really overvalued whereas Prof Siegel.
said the data on which CAPE relies were unreliable. His very own version.
revealed US supplies to be undervalued.

 

 

 


The here and now assessment ratios are market-capitalization-weighted.
"" Weight" offers the actual country weight. PE (Price-Earnings-Ratio),.
PC (Price-Cashflow-Ratio), PS (Price-Sales-Ratio) as well as DY.
( Dividend-Yield) are based upon trailing 12 month values. PB.
( Price-Book-Ratio) is based on one of the most current firm financal.
declarations. The rounded RS( Relative-Strength)- Indicators (adhering to.
Levy) separate the current market value by the average price of the.
previous 26/52 weeks. To make certain comparability across countries, the.
RS-Indicators are calculated in EUR. The StarCapital-Score is obtained.
from basic appraisal and relative-strength indicators as well as actions.
the family member good looks of a country (blue= beautifully valued,.
red= expensive). In the above table, vacant cells represent adverse or.
unavailable values. We exclusively analyze companies for which information is.
provided by at the very least two independent providers. Outliers are examined.
qualitatively and removed where necessary. The nation selection is.
based on the Datastream Global Equity Universe (66 countries). Just the.
40 crucial as well as most fluid countries are displayed in the table, only.
for them StarCapital Scores are computed. The published details.
does not comprise investment suggestions or suggestions. No.
responsibility is considered the correctness of this info. Source:.
StarCapital, Thomson Reuters Datastream (Worldscope/ IBES), business.
information et al. Keep in mind: As of April 2015, we have prolonged the.
underyling equity cosmos by 2,400 business to accomplish a more comprehensive.
market protection. The prolonged equity universe likewise includes 800.
companies from 27 new emerging markets disappointed in the table over:.
Argentina, Bahrain, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt,.
Estonia, Jordan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marocco, Nigeria,.
Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sri Lanka,.
United Arab Emirates and Venezuela.


 

 

 


< iframe src=" https://youtube.com/embed/8nzMg9qYEwU" allowfullscreen="" width =" 856" elevation= "480" frameborder
=" 0" > The smoothing attained by looking at incomes over a 10-year duration. stays clear of ending a market is low-cost or expensive based
on unsustainable. one-year swings in profits, either up or down. Doubters direct out the.
selection of a 10-year duration is approximate, and also neither the economic nor.
earnings cycles follow cool 10-year patterns. Numerous likewise question the use.
of data supplied by Prof Shiller for profits back to the late 19th.
century, arguing that modifications to accounting requirements - in addition to.
differing enforcement of the regulations - makes them hard to compare. [1]

 


What Is Shiller Pe Ratio.

 


The P/E 10 ratio is calculated as follows – – take the yearly EPS of an.
equity index such as the S&P 500 for the previous 10 years. Change these.
profits for rising cost of living utilizing the CPI. Take the average of these genuine EPS.
figures over the 10-year duration. Divide the current level of the S&P 500.
by the 10-year average EPS number to get the P/E 10 proportion or CAPE proportion.


shiller pe ratio formula.

 

 

 


An objection of the P/E 10 ratio is that it is not constantly precise in.
signifying market tops or bases. An article in the.
September 2011 concern of the "" American Association of Individual.
Capitalists' Journal" "kept in mind that the CAPE proportion for the S&P 500 was 23.35.
in July 2011. Comparing this proportion to the long-lasting CAPE average of.
16.41 would certainly recommend that the index was greater than 40% overvalued at that.
factor. The post recommended that the CAPE ratio provided an excessively.
bearish view of the market, because conventional appraisal steps like.
the P/E revealed the S&P 500 trading at a multiple of 16.17 (based upon.
reported profits) or 14.84 (based on operating earnings). Although the.
S&P 500 did plunge 16% during a one-month span from mid-July to.
mid-August 2011, the index consequently climbed greater than 35% from July.
2011 to brand-new highs by November 2013.

 


Shiller Pe Ratio Index.

 


From this we will estimate that at the Shiller P/E's current level, the.
future market return will certainly be around -2.2% a year. This is the historical.
indicated return, real return as well as lengthy term interest. Rates of interest does.
have an effect on the marketplace returns. Click on the tale of the graph.
listed advice below to show/hide chart collection.

 


The P/E 10 proportion differs a large amount in time. Inning accordance with data first.
offered in Shiller's bestseller "Irrational Exuberance" (which was.
released in March 2000, coinciding with the top of the dot-com boom),.
updated to cover the period 1881 to November 2013, the proportion has actually differed.
from a reduced of 4.78 in December 1920 to an optimal of 44.20 in December 1999.

 


GuruFocus calculates the Shiller P/E proportion of individual stocks as well as.
different markets. Here you could see the Sector Shiller PE, it reveals you.
which markets are the most affordable. Here you could see Shiller P/E of.
individual supplies.

 


Shiller Pe Ratio Current.

 


In May 2013 it was reported that stock exchange in southern Europe were.
beginning to attract the interest of hedge funds due to their low.
cyclically readjusted PE proportions. The US market looks either at, or over,.
long term evaluations, depending where you take your starting point.
Spain's supply market was on a Shiller revenues multiple of 8.9 –   – much less. compared to half its long-run assessment of 20.8.


 

 

 


< iframe src =" https://youtube.com/embed/lPoTi-Jfdh4" allowfullscreen


="" size=" 856 "elevation=" 480 "frameborder =" 0" > Shiller Pe Ratio Data.
The adhering to graph reveals the present circulation of all taken into consideration. countries and also 39 fields in our world (please describe our.
details on Sector Valuation) for more details. One of the most.
eye-catching countries are shaded blue, much less eye-catching countries are.
shaded red:.

 


Shiller Pe Ratio For Europe.

 


The Shiller P/E as well as the ratio of overall market cap over GDP could function as.
great support for financiers in determining their financial investment methods at.
different market valuations. When, historical market returns show that.
the marketplace is fair or overvalued, it'ses a good idea to be protective. Business.
with top quality service and solid annual report will certainly supply better.
returns in this environment. When the market economicals, defeated down.
companies with strong equilibrium sheets could provide outsized returns.

 


In fact, it will certainly never be the situation that Shiller P/E will certainly turn around.
specifically to the mean after 8 years. Table listed below provide us a far better idea on.
If the market are within 50% to, the array of the future returns will certainly be.
150% of the mean.

 


Shiller Pe Ratio Nasdaq.

 


Why Is the Regular P/E Ratio Deceiving? The routine P/E uses the proportion.
of the S&P 500 index over the trailing-12-month earnings of S&P 500.
firms. Throughout financial growths, companies have high profit.
incomes and also margins. The P/E ratio after that comes to be synthetically reduced due to.
higher incomes. During economic downturns, earnings margins are low as well as earnings.
are low. After that the regular P/E ratio becomes greater. It is most apparent.
in the graph listed below:.


 

 

 


< iframe src =" https://youtube.com/embed/Cv7CCprZa4M" allowfullscreen =" "width =" 856 "height =" 480" frameborder =" 0" > What Is Shiller Pe

 


Ratio. The highest height for the regular P/E was 123 in the initial quarter of.
2009. By then the S&P 500 had actually collapsed greater than 50% from its height in.
2007. Since profits were dispirited, the P/E was high. With the P/E at.
123 in the very first quarter of 2009, a lot greater than the historic mean.
of 15, it was the most effective time in recent history to buy supplies. On the.
other hand, the Shiller P/E went to 13.3, its cheapest degree in decades,.
properly suggesting a much better time to purchase stocks.

 


Shiller Pe Ratio Bloomberg.

 


The P/E 10 ratio is based upon the work of renowned capitalists Benjamin.
Graham and also David Dodd in their famous 1934 financial investment tome "Security.
Analysis." Graham and also Dodd advised making use of a multi-year standard of.
earnings per share (EPS) – – such as 5, 7 or 10 years – – when computing P/E.
proportions to control for intermittent impacts.




The conventional P/E.
Robert Shiller and an additional renowed economist, Jeremy Siegel.< iframe src=" https://youtube.com/embed/8nzMg9qYEwU" allowfullscreen="" width =" 856" elevation= "480" frameborder
=" 0" > The smoothing achieved attained looking at earnings profits a 10-year periodDuration The routine P/E proportion comes to be greater. The P/E was high since incomes were dispirited.

Shiller Pe Ratio Nasdaq



Shiller Pe Ratio Individual Stocks

The P/E 10 proportion is based upon the work of prominent financiers Benjamin Graham and also David Dodd in their epic 1934 investment tome "Security Analysis." Graham as well as Dodd suggested making use of a multi-year standard of profits each share (EPS)-- such as 5, 7 or 10 years-- when calculating P/E ratios to regulate for cyclical results.


In fact, it will never ever be the situation that Shiller P/E will turn around specifically to the mean after 8 years.
is there a website that shows the shiller pe ratio for individual stocks?

GuruFocus determines the Shiller P/E ratio of different sectors and specific supplies. Below you can see the Sector Shiller PE, it shows you which sectors are the cheapest. Below you could see Shiller P/E of specific supplies.

 

Shiller Pe Ratio Vs S u0026p 500

The Shiller PE intends to ravel the economic and also profit cycles to provide a much more enlightened view of a business's cost compared to the traditional rate earnings ratio, which uses just one year of earnings. The traditional P/E ratio compares the share cost to either the previous year's earnings or projection profits, commonly for the next 12 months.

 

The P/E 10 ratio is calculated as complies with-- take the annual EPS of an equity index such as the S&P 500 for the previous 10 years. Adjust these profits for rising cost of living using the CPI. Take the average of these actual EPS figures over the 10-year duration. Split the present level of the S&P 500 by the 10-year average EPS number to obtain the P/E 10 ratio or CAPE ratio.

 

Relating to the flaws of the Shiller proportion, see the blog post below. Jesse (author of the site) has a lot more articles there relevant to this subject-- more compared to sufficient to occupy your mind for days, otherwise weeks or months. Below's one quick figure to contemplate. "Since 1990, nonetheless, the statistics has actually just spent 2% of the moment listed below its historic average-- 98% of the moment over." I would certainly argue that any type of metric designed to provide signaling to the future direct of claimed market could not spend 98% of its time on one side of its average over a 25-year duration.

 

What Is Shiller Pe Ratio

The P/E 10 proportion varies a lot over time. According to data initially offered in Shiller's bestseller "Irrational Exuberance" (which was released in March 2000, coinciding with the top of the dot-com boom), updated to cover the duration 1881 to November 2013, the ratio has varied from a low of 4.78 in December 1920 to a top of 44.20 in December 1999.

 

In May 2013 it was reported that stock exchange in southerly Europe were starting to attract the focus of hedge funds because of their reduced cyclically readjusted PE proportions. The United States market looks either at, or over, lengthy term evaluations, depending where you take your beginning point. Spain's securities market was on a Shiller revenues multiple of 8.9 -- less compared to half its long-run appraisal of 20.8.

 

Why Is the Regular P/E Ratio Deceiving? The regular P/E makes use of the proportion of the S&P 500 index over the trailing-12-month earnings of S&P 500 business. Throughout economic developments, companies have high profit margins as well as revenues. The P/E ratio then ends up being synthetically low because of higher revenues. During economic crises, profit margins are reduced and also revenues are reduced. After that the routine P/E ratio ends up being greater. It is most noticeable in the graph listed below:

 

P/e 10 Ratio

The smoothing attained by considering earnings over a 10-year period prevents wrapping up a market is inexpensive or expensive based on unsustainable 1 year swings in revenues, either up or down. Doubters point out the option of a 10-year duration is arbitrary, and also neither the financial neither profit cycles follow neat 10-year patterns. Many also question the use of data given by Prof Shiller commercial back to the late 19th century, saying that adjustments to accounting requirements - along with differing enforcement of the guidelines - makes them difficult to contrast. [1]
The Shiller P/E as well as the proportion of overall market cap over GDP could offer as excellent advice for investors in determining their financial investment techniques at different market assessments. An objection of the P/E 10 proportion is that it is not constantly precise in signifying market tops or bottoms. The write-up suggested important link that the CAPE proportion gave an excessively bearish sight of the market, because traditional appraisal actions like the P/E revealed the S&P 500 trading at a several of 16.17 (based on reported revenues) or 14.84 (based on operating revenues).


GuruFocus computes the Shiller P/E ratio of specific stocks and different fields. The normal P/E uses the ratio of the S&P 500 index over the trailing-12-month earnings of S&P 500 firms. The P/E proportion then comes to be artificially low due to higher profits. The Shiller P/E as well as the proportion of overall market cap over GDP could offer as great assistance for capitalists in determining their financial investment methods at different market appraisals. The write-up recommended that the CAPE proportion provided an extremely bearish sight of the market, because standard appraisal steps like the P/E revealed the S&P 500 trading at a several of 16.17 (based on reported incomes) or 14.84 (based on operating profits).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15